A significant challenge in the world of energy supply is the interim storage of energy. In the past, generation was adapted to demand. The generation of renewable energy using photovoltaic units or wind farms, in particular, has reversed the situation such that demand must now adapt to generation. The use of energy storage is one way to increase demand.
Power to Heat
This technology transforms energy into heat and stores it. At times of low energy demand and a high, volatile feed of energy from renewable generation plants, e.g. wind farms, Power-to-Heat plants should be used to convert excess electrical energy into heat. The heat generated can, for example, be used to provide hot water or heat rooms, thereby replacing fossil fuels (natural gas, crude oil).
Power to Gas
This technology uses electrical energy and electrolysis to generate a combustible and storable gas, e.g. methane or hydrogen. This technique also uses excess energy from renewable sources.
The stored gas can either be fed into the available gas grid or stored locally in a separate tank. If required, the gas can be used to generate energy again.
In large battery storage facilities, excess energy can be withdrawn from the electricity grid and stored and fed back into the grid later on. As well as stationary battery storage facilities, these also include electric vehicles which are connected to the electricity grid via charging infrastructure.
Battery storage systems come in differing dimensions - from a few kilowatts to several megawatts - and, for example, can be operated in conjunction with photovoltaic cells by private users.